A diet-incorporation larval bioassay was developed to measure the response of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to the benzoylhydrazine insecticides tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide. The bioassay tested neonates and third, fourth, and fifth instars from a laboratory colony and neonates and fourth instars from a pooled population collected from five certified-organic apple orchards. Bioassays were scored after 6 and 14 d. No differences between the laboratory and field population were found for either insecticide. Significant differences were found in the response of third and fifth instars between the 6 and 14 d bioassays, primarily due to a high proportion of moribund larvae in the shorter assay. Larval age had a significant effect in bioassays and was more pronounced in 6- versus 14-d tests. Fifth instars were significantly less susceptible to both insecticides than other stages, while responses of third and fourth instars were similar. The response of neonates was significantly different from third and fourth instars to tebufenozide but not with methoxyfenozide in the 14-d test. Field bioassays excluded the use of fifth instars and were scored after 14 d. LC50s estimated for 18 field-collected populations varied five- and ninefold for tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide, respectively. The responses of all but six field-collected populations were significantly different from the laboratory strain. Five of these six populations were collected from orchards with no history of organophosphate insecticide use. The LC50 for methoxyfenozide of one field-collected population reared in the laboratory for three generations declined fourfold, but was still significantly different from the laboratory population. These data suggest that transforming current codling moth management programs in Washington from a reliance on organophosphate insecticides to benzoylhydrazines may be difficult.
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Vol. 94 • No. 1