Twelve families, 26 genera, and 30 identifiable spider species were found in surveys conducted in apple orchards of western Oregon. The Salticidae, Linyphiidae, Clubionidae, Philodromidae, and Theridiidae comprised 85.56% of the total spiders collected. The most common species in order of abundance were Metaphidippus aeneolus Curtis, Spirembolus mundus Chamberlin & Ivie, Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz), Philodromus spectabilis Keyserling, Eris marginata (Walckenaer), and Theridion lawrencei Gertsch & Archer. Individuals of these species were collected in 50–60% of the samples and were most abundant in the month of August. The Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides, DiPel (100 Million International Units/100 liters) and MVP (250 ml/100 liters), summer oil (0.5–1.0 liter/100 liters), the insect growth regulator (IGR) diflubenzuron (3–12 g/100 liters), and organophosphate Phosmet (6–60 g/100 liters) were generally harmless (P > 0.05) to these spider species. Full field rates of organophosphate azinphosmethyl (25 g/100 liters) and carbamate carbaryl (60 g/100 liters) were slightly to moderately harmful (25–75% mortality). These insecticides at reduced rates (azinphosmethyl 2.5–5.0 g and carbaryl 12 g/100 liters) applied alone or in combination with DiPel and MVP, had a negligible effect. Full rates of pyrethroids esfenvalerate (2.5 g/100 liters) and permethrin (4.0 g/100 liters) were moderately to highly harmful (50–75% mortality) and their reduced rates (esfenvalerate 0.25–0.50 g and permethrin 0.4–0.8 g/100 liters) were selective to the spiders.
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Vol. 94 • No. 1