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1 April 2001 Seasonal Abundance of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Wheat and Their Role as Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Vectors in the South Carolina Coastal Plain
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Abstract

Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) seasonal flight activity and abundance in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and the significance of aphid species as vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus were studied over a nine-year period in the South Carolina coastal plain. Four aphid species colonized wheat in a consistent seasonal pattern. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and rice root aphid, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki), colonized seedling wheat immediately after crop emergence, with apterous colonies usually peaking in December or January and then declining for the remainder of the season. These two aphid species are unlikely to cause economic loss on wheat in South Carolina, thus crop managers should not have to sample for the subterranean R. rufiabdominalis colonies. Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), was the second most abundant species and the most economically important. Rhopalosiphum padi colonies usually remained below 10/row-meter until peaking in February or March. Barley yellow dwarf incidence and wheat yield loss were significantly correlated with R. padi peak abundance and aphid-day accumulation on the crop. Based on transmission assays, R. padi was primarily responsible for vectoring the predominant virus serotype (PAV) we found in wheat. Pest management efforts should focus on sampling for and suppressing this aphid species. December planting reduced aphid-day accumulation and barley yellow dwarf incidence, but delayed planting is not a practical management option. English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), was the last species to colonize wheat each season, and the most abundant. Sitobion avenae was responsible for late-season virus transmission and caused direct yield loss by feeding on heads and flag leaves during an outbreak year.

Jay W. Chapin, James S. Thomas, Stewart M. Gray, Dawn M. Smith, and Susan E. Halbert "Seasonal Abundance of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Wheat and Their Role as Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Vectors in the South Carolina Coastal Plain," Journal of Economic Entomology 94(2), 410-421, (1 April 2001). https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-94.2.410
Received: 11 September 2000; Accepted: 1 December 2000; Published: 1 April 2001
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