Fitness costs associated with resistance to transgenic crops producing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) may have important effects on the evolution of resistance. We investigated overwintering costs in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gosypiella (Saunders), strains with different degrees of resistance to Bt cotton. Frequency of resistant individuals in a strain was not associated with induction of diapause or emergence from diapause in early winter. Emergence from diapause in the spring was 71% lower in three highly resistant strains than in two heterogeneous strains from which the resistant strains were derived. This underestimates the overwintering cost because the frequency of the resistance allele was relatively high in the heterogeneous strains. Emergence in the spring in hybrid progeny from crosses between the resistant and heterogeneous strains was greater than in resistant strains but did not differ from susceptible strains, showing that the overwintering cost was recessive to some extent.
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Vol. 94 • No. 4