Discriminating doses of fenvalerate, cypermethrin, quinalphos, and endosulfan were determined with an insecticide-susceptible Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) strain. In-season changes in insecticide resistance were monitored with discriminating dose assays at weekly intervals throughout the cropping season for 6 yr from 1993 to 1999 in central India. Resistance to pyrethroids was high throughout all seasons. Resistance to 0.75 μg of quinalphos was consistent, with seasonal averages ranging from 23 to 27% survival over the 6 yr. Resistance to 10.0 μg of endosulfan was moderately high at an average of 40–47% survival during 1993–1994 and in 1997–1998. It was lower in 1996–1997 at 27%, and in 1998–1999 at 33%. The weekly monitoring data for all seasons were pooled and the consolidated 6-yr seasonal average profile indicated that resistance to quinalphos and endosulfan was low during September at 21 and 27% survival, respectively, but increased to 28 and 37% by the end of November. Resistance levels to organophosphates and endosulfan increased during the season, depending on the use of these compounds. At almost all monitoring sites, the within-season changes in quinalphos resistance for all seasons through the study period followed a trend similar to that of endosulfan. The results suggest the possibility of cross-resistance between these compounds. Based on this study and the existing information on cotton pest management, we have developed a “window strategy” for cotton pest management with specific emphasis on the management of insecticides for effective control of H. armigera. This strategy has contributed to improved control at reduced costs in extensive trials.
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Vol. 95 • No. 1