Twenty chemicals that were reported to act as anion transport inhibitors, cation transport inhibitors, and inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase activity were tested at a 1% concentration (wt:wt) for their effects upon the biological activity of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV). Among the five anion transport inhibitors tested, flufenamic acid acted as a viral enhancer. None of the seven inhibitors of K enhanced viral activity and three (4-aminopyridine, diacetyl, and procaine) significantly reduced the activity of LdMNPV. All four Na transport inhibitors (abietic acid, amiloride, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, triamterene) acted as viral enhancers. Triamterene was the most active enhancer, as the LC50 was reduced by ≈1,750-fold. Five carbonic anhydrase inhibitors were tested and four (acetazolamide, hydrochlorothiazide, methazolamide, sulfanilamide) enhanced the activity of LdMNPV. Acetazolamide (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), amiloride (a Na transport inhibitor), and flufenamic acid (an anion transport inhibitor) were tested singly and in different combinations. Every combination tested (acetazolamide/amiloride, acetazolamide/flufenamic acid, amiloride/flufenamic acid, acetazolamide/amiloride/flufenamic acid) significantly decreased the LC50 from 7.79 PIB/mm2 to a value as low as 0.008 PIB/mm2 (amiloride/flufenamic acid).
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Vol. 95 • No. 2