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1 June 2003 Relationship Between the para-Homologous Sodium Channel Point Mutation (g → c at Nucleotide 2979) and Knockdown Resistance in the German Cockroach Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction to Discern Genotype
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Abstract

Extensive use of pyrethroid insecticides for urban pest control has led to widespread pyrethroid resistance in the German cockroach. A mutation at nucleotide position 2979 (G to C, causing a leucine to phenylalanine change) in the S6 transmembrane segment of domain II of the para-homologous voltage-gated sodium channel has been previously identified in knockdown-resistant cockroaches and demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis to reduce channel sensitivity to pyrethroids. In a recent survey, 83% of pyrethroid-resistant German cockroach populations were found to possess this mutation. A German cockroach strain with a low incidence of the L993F mutation was subjected to selection pressure with cypermethrin and subsequently evaluated over several generations for the knockdown resistance phenotype. Correspondingly, we determined the genotype of individual cockroaches of each population at the 2979 position of the para-homologous gene. Genotype was discerned by development of a polymerase chain reaction method that employed a mismatched primer-template set. A direct relationship was observed between mean knockdown time and the presence of the kdr mutation. Furthermore, individuals homozygous for the kdr mutation exhibited a significantly higher mean knockdown time than heterozygotes or wildtype cockroaches. This is the first report demonstrating the progressive expression of the kdr allele in response to insecticide selection pressure.

Steven M. Valles, Omaththage P. Perera, and Charles A. Strong "Relationship Between the para-Homologous Sodium Channel Point Mutation (g → c at Nucleotide 2979) and Knockdown Resistance in the German Cockroach Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction to Discern Genotype," Journal of Economic Entomology 96(3), 885-891, (1 June 2003). https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-96.3.885
Received: 4 October 2002; Accepted: 1 January 2003; Published: 1 June 2003
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