Extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, negatively affected feeding and development of Clavigralla scutellaris (Westwood), a coreid pest of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh. Labial dabbing, pod wall penetration, and seed damage by fifth instars were significantly reduced on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), that had been dipped in aqueous, methanolic, or hexane extracts of neem seed kernel. When fourth instars were dipped directly into aqueous extract, developmental abnormalities of the wings occurred at all levels tested and fecundity dropped to zero at concentrations above 0.3125%. The LC50 value was 3.14% (220 ppm azadirachtin) at 8 d. The scelionid wasp Gryon fulviventre (Crawford) is an important natural enemy of Clavigralla spp.; egg mortality from this parasitoid ranged from 37 to 85% during the fall cropping season. Feeding by newly emerged wasps was dramatically reduced when honey was mixed with aqueous neem suspension, but 6-d survivorship of adults did not differ significantly from that of the control. Wasp oviposition behavior was altered slightly when coreid eggs were treated with neem: the period of antennation was significantly extended, but time for drilling, oviposition, and marking was unaffected. Neem-dipped eggs were accepted for oviposition and progeny emerged successfully from these treated eggs. Exposure of already parasitized eggs to neem did not interfere with progeny emergence, longevity, or sex ratio. Thus, neem extract and egg parasitoids seem to be compatible and promising control strategies for C. scutellaris. Our results suggest that use of neem against pod-sucking bugs will not interfere with natural control provided by G. fulviventre.
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Vol. 97 • No. 3