The movement and distribution of adult Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) in grain provide important information for detection of insect pests and for simulations of their distribution in grain bins. Adult movement and distribution were determined in 100 by 100 by 1000-mm wheat (14.5 ± 0.2% moisture content) columns at four insect densities, three temperature gradients, and dynamic (changing) temperature conditions. Insect density was a minor factor influencing insect movement and distribution in grain columns with temperature gradients. Dispersal resulted in a uniform distribution at a higher insect density (higher than two adults per kilogram of wheat), and aggregation occurred at a low insect density. Adults wandered in the first 6 h after introduction, and there were fewer adults wandering in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction. Adults moved faster in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction, and the maximum speed of the movement was 6 m/d in the horizontal direction, and >10.8 m/d in the vertical direction through wheat. Adults could detect temperature gradients in <1 h and preferred warmer temperatures when they had a choice. Insect distribution in horizontal wheat columns at any temperature gradient was unstable for 24 h. Twenty-four hours after introduction, adults gradually overcame their positive geotactic behavior if the upper temperature was more biologically suitable or was not <27.5°C. Adults responded faster to higher temperature gradients than to lower temperature gradients. There was a similar pattern of adult distribution in 144 h.
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Vol. 97 • No. 3