We confirmed that commercial three- or four-component Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) pheromone lures had a high nontarget capture rate for Leucania phragmatidicola Guenée, which compromised monitoring efforts in the northeastern United States. We compiled taxonomic features to distinguish L. phragmatidicola from S. frugiperda, and we compared five new lures. S. frugiperda catch specificity was improved by removing (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate (Z11–16:Ac), which attracted L. phragmatidicola. Four lures tracked late-season S. frugiperda immigration, but two of these lures also tracked a bivoltine L. phragmatidicola flight with a second generation coincident with S. frugiperda immigration, and one lure attracted the first, but not the second, generation of L. phragmatidicola. In both low- and high-moth flight conditions, two-component lures had low L. phragmatidicola captures (0.5–1.4%), and although lures with more pheromonal components captured more S. frugiperda, they also had a high percentage of capture of L. phragmatidicola (38–48%). We conclude that although two-component lures captured fewer S. frugiperda, their similar temporal pattern, along with the lower level of L. phragmatidicola, makes them useful for development for monitoring programs in the northeastern United States.
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