(−)-Ceralure B1 (ethyl-cis-5-iodo-trans-2-methylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate), a male attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is significantly more attractive than trimedlure (tert-butyl esters of 4(5)-chloro-2-methylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate), the current standard male attractant used in detection programs. This article reports studies that compare the effectiveness of racemic ceralure B1, mixtures of racemic ceralure B1 and pure (−)-ceralure B1, and trimedlure in field tests conducted in Hawaii, Africa, and Spain with wild Mediterranean fruit flies and in Florida with sterile released Mediterranean fruit fly. Trapping results showed that doses of (−)-ceralure B1 of 87.5 and 75% are just as effective as the 98% (−)-ceralure B1 and the racemic form to be almost as attractive. In nearly all studies, the racemic ceralure B1 was significantly better than trimedlure. These studies suggest that the racemic ceralure B1 could be a viable replacement for trimedlure in areawide detection programs for Mediterranean fruit fly. Synthesizing racemic ceralure B1 instead of a specific stereoselective enantiomer of ceralure B1 would likely be more cost-effective to produce and also might be useful in control as well as detection of this pest.
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