Pilot-scale warehouses, artificially infested with all life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were used to evaluate the efficacy of two contact insecticides, (S)-hydroprene and cyfluthrin, and to determine the effect of insecticide treatments on insect captures in food- and pheromone-baited pitfall traps. Two application strategies were compared; insecticides were applied at the labeled rate either around the inside perimeter of the warehouse or in a band around the base of shelf units containing discrete food patches (10 g of wheat flour) infested with T. castaneum. Insect populations were assessed weekly for 6 wk by recording number of dead adults on the warehouse floor; number of larvae and adults captured in pitfall traps; and number of larvae, pupae, and adults recovered from food patch samples. There were significantly more dead adults in warehouses treated with cyfluthrin than with (S)-hydroprene or water (control treatment). However, food patch samples showed no detectable differences in quantity of larvae, pupae, or adults among any treatments. Pitfall traps detected fewer larvae starting the fourth week of the study in the warehouses treated with cyfluthrin around the shelf perimeter. Rate of larval capture in traps increased overall with increasing larval populations, but it was more pronounced in traps located closer to the food patches. Number of adults captured in pitfall traps reflected adult mortality in cyfluthrin-treated warehouses. Capture of larvae and adults was greater near the source of the infestation than elsewhere in the warehouse, suggesting that trapping data should be considered when precision targeting insecticide applications in the field.
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