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1 October 2005 Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as Influenced by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Developmental Stage and Host Plant Stage
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Abstract

Entomopathogenic nematodes were investigated as an alternative biological control strategy for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in ornamental greenhouse crops, by using potted chrysanthemum as a model crop. The susceptibility of various life stages of F. occidentalis to different concentrations of the nematode Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was investigated in petri dish bioassays. This was followed with trials using potted chrysanthemums comparing the efficacy of nematode application to plants in vegetative (exposed habitat) versus flowering (cryptic habitat) stages. In both trials, the effect of the wetting agent Agral 90 (nonylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol), which is used in combination with the nematode spray, on F. occidentalis mortality was assessed. In petri dish trials, the prepupae and pupae were the most susceptible developmental stages of F. occidentalis to infection by S. feltiae. First and second instars were killed by very high rates of nematodes (≥20,000 infective juveniles per milliliter), but corrected mortality was only ≈28–37%. No significant mortality was observed for adult thrips. Results from the petri dish trials were confirmed on chrysanthemum plants. Foliar application of S. feltiae did not result in significant mortality in larvae or adults. No significant differences in efficacy were detected by application of nematodes on vegetative versus flowering chrysanthemum. Agral 90 had a significant impact on mortality on the first stage larvae and prepupae in the petri dish trials but not in the plant trials. Thrips control by S. feltiae in greenhouses may be partly or completely due to prepupal and pupal mortality.

R. Buitenhuis and J. L. Shipp "Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as Influenced by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Developmental Stage and Host Plant Stage," Journal of Economic Entomology 98(5), 1480-1485, (1 October 2005). https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-98.5.1480
Received: 17 March 2005; Accepted: 1 June 2005; Published: 1 October 2005
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