Field studies in citrus were conducted to compare the following as attractants for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew): torula yeast–borax; propylene glycol (10%); a two-component lure consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine; a two-component lure consisting of ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine; and a three-component lure consisting of ammonium bicarbonate, methylamine hydrochloride, and putrescine. Various combinations of these attractants in glass McPhail, plastic McPhail-type (Multi-Lure), and sticky panel traps were investigated in two replicated studies. In one study on wild flies, the most effective and least complex trap–lure combination tested was the Multi-Lure with propylene glycol baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine. This trap–lure combination captured significantly more female and male flies than the standard glass McPhail baited with torula yeast–borax in water. All of the trap–lure combinations were female biased, with an overall average of 80.8% (SEM 1.4) flies captured being female. A second study on laboratory-reared, irradiated flies indicated no significant differences among these trap–lure combinations with respect to number of flies recaptured, although rankings based on mean number of flies recovered per trap per day supported results of the first study. The percentage of flies recaptured that were female (83.0%, SEM 0.9) was statistically the same as in the first study. Weekly percentage recovery of flies during the second study was low, possibly due to our fly release strategy. Future release/recovery studies with laboratory-reared flies would benefit from some basic research on release strategies by using different trap densities and on relating recapture rates of laboratory-reared flies (nonsterile and sterile) to capture rates of wild flies.
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Vol. 98 • No. 5