The insecticidal effect of the azadirachtin-based insecticide, NeemAzal, was examined against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val in rye, whole oats, and peeled oats. The insecticide was applied at three dose rates, which were equivalent to 50, 100, and 200 ppm of azadirachtin A. Adults of the above-mentioned species were exposed to the treated grains at 25°C and 65% RH, and mortality was assessed after 24 h, 48 h, 7 d, and 14 d of exposure. Then, all adults were removed, and the treated substrate remained at the same conditions for an additional 45 d. After this interval, the grains were checked for progeny production. In all species and commodities tested, mortality increased with the increase of dose and exposure interval, except for T. confusum on whole and peeled oats. For R. dominica, NeemAzal was more effective on oats than on rye and peeled oats. In contrast, at rates ≥100 ppm, azadirachtin was equally effective against S. oryzae on whole rye and oats, where mortality was 100% after 7 and 14 d of exposure, respectively. NeemAzal was not very effective against T. confusum where adult mortality was low, even after 14 d of exposure at the highest rate. For all species, significantly less progeny were recorded in the treated grains than in the untreated grains, with the exception of T. confusum on oats where offspring was significantly reduced only at the highest rate.
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Vol. 98 • No. 5