Studies were conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival, residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition on sugarcane and woody plant species proximal to sugarcane grown in Florida. Adults survived longer feeding on lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) and Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) foliage compared to sugarcane in a laboratory no-choice feeding test. Four sugarcane varieties and three woody plant species (Brazilian peppertree, castorbean (Ricinus communis L.), US-942 citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco ‘Sunki’ × Poncirus trifoliate L. ‘Flying Dragon’)) were evaluated in a greenhouse free-choice test. Adult residence and feeding damage were highest on Brazilian peppertree compared to the other species, although the feeding damage was not significantly different from US-942 citrus. There was little feeding damage on castorbean and sugarcane. Oviposition was observed on all sugarcane and woody plant species with exception of castorbean. Brazilian peppertree had the highest number of egg masses followed by US-942 citrus. Leaf tissue analysis showed that feeding preference of adults for Brazilian peppertree and US-942 citrus may be due to higher tissue concentration of plant nutrients compared to those of sugarcane. Woody plant surveys showed that Brazilian peppertree and castorbean had the highest frequency around Florida sugarcane. These results show that Brazilian peppertree is a preferred food source and oviposition site for adult weevils. Adults oviposit on sugarcane, but it is not a preferred food source since adult survival is reduced. Therefore, reduction of Brazilian peppertree near sugarcane fields is important in controlling the weevil in Florida sugarcane.