A new species of Rhampholeon from the montane and submontane escarpment forests of the Udzungwa Mountains is described. This pigmy chameleon has a maximum total length of 64 mm and bears a close morphological resemblance to Rhampholeon uluguruensis, differing mainly by possessing finer cranial scalation and more thornlike hemipenal papillae arranged in two proximal rows of four (occasionally five) and two followed by a single terminal row of four (occasionally five) papillae. The only known populations of this species are found in Udzungwa escarpement forests between 1200 and 2000 m a.s.l. The zoogeography and systematics of related species of the genus Rhampholeon in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Malawi are reviewed and an updated key to the Genus Rhampholeon is presented.
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