We report the earliest fossil record of a Pigmy Rattlesnake (Sistrurus) on the basis of a trunk vertebra from the Late Miocene (Clarendonian NALMA) Pratt Slide local fauna of Nebraska. Vertebral characteristics of the genus are discussed, and the fossil was diagnosed mainly by the presence of a zygosphenal spine. This record suggests Sistrurus existed as a distinct lineage prior to the Late Miocene and that the genus has been present on the central Great Plains for at least five million years.
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