A new species of Amphisbaena is described from Fazenda Caraibas, municipality of Mucugê, state of Bahia, Brazil, in the northern portion of the Serra do Espinhaço. The new species is a small amphisbaenian without precloacal pores, 210–213 body annuli, 12–13 tail annuli without evident autotomic site, and 14 dorsal and 14–15 ventral segments per annuli at midbody. The striking difference of this form is the presence of small tubercles on the dorsal region of its tail. This feature is unique among its congeners, although Rhineura floridana, a North American amphisbaenian, has tubercles on its tail. We suggest that the presence of tubercles on the tail of Amphisbaena sp. nov. and Rhineura floridana has arisen independently.
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