Although the number of temporary wetlands used by many amphibian species has declined nationally, permanent wetlands have increased on the landscape in many regions. Species like Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) may benefit from permanent wetlands and increase their density on the landscape, making them more likely to encounter wetlands used by amphibians breeding in temporary ponds. Although Bullfrogs are typically viewed as inhabitants of permanent wetlands because of their long larval periods, they are known to use temporary ponds. This study examined how larval density influenced proportion of Bullfrogs metamorphosing, time to metamorphosis, mass at metamorphosis, and total Bullfrog survival in mesocosm ponds. Proportion of Bullfrogs metamorphosing and tadpole development were greatest in mesocosms with low tadpole density with up to 25% of tadpoles reaching metamorphosis. Our study indicates Bullfrogs can metamorphose in more northern climates within a single season across a range of densities, and highlights the potential for Bullfrogs to successfully use temporary pond environments.
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