Karyotypes of Leposoma show a clear differentiation between species of the scincoides group from Brazilian Atlantic Forest (2n = 52, without distinctive size groups of chromosomes) and those of the parietale group from the Amazon (2n = 44, with 20M 24m). In a previous study, we found that in the parietale group the parthenoform Leposoma percarinatum from the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, exhibited a triploid karyotype (3n = 66) with 30 macrochromosomes and 36 microchromosomes. It was suggested that this karyotype arose after hybridization between a bisexual species with N = 22 (10M 12m) and a hypothetical unisexual cryptic diploid form of the L. percarinatum complex. Herein, we describe the karyotypes for two species of the parietale group occurring sympatrically in the Arquipélago das Anavilhanas, lower Rio Negro, in Amazonian Brazil. The first represents a distinctive diploid parthenogenetic clone of the L. percarinatum complex, and the other is the recently described Leposoma ferreirai. Both species have 44 biarmed chromosomes clearly represented by 20 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes and present Ag-NORs in one pair of the smallest sized microchromosomes; heteromorphism of size for these regions was detected in L. percarinatum. C-banding revealed blocks of constitutive heterochromatin on the telomeric and pericentromeric regions of macrochromosomes and some microchromosomes. The description of a diploid karyotype (2n = 44, 20M 24m) for the L. percarinatum complex and its sympatric congener L. ferreirai provides new insight for a better understanding of the origin of parthenogenesis in the L. percarinatum complex.
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