Although the treefrog Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824) (Anura: Hylidae) is abundant in South America, especially in regions of open vegetation in Brazil, information regarding its natural history is still scarce. This study describes its ecology including aspects of microhabitat use, population dynamics, diet, and reproduction in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil. We used model selection to test hypotheses of variation in survival and recapture rates as a function of differences in sex, seasonality, and climatic variables. We also tested hypotheses regarding sexual dimorphism. This species uses mainly herbaceous vegetation and bushes along margins of the ponds. Apparent survival, estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber mark-recapture model, was higher for males than females and was negatively correlated with rainfall. Recapture probability was influenced by seasonality, presenting higher values in the wet season. This highlights the influence of weather, especially seasonal rainfall, on the population dynamics of anurans occurring in tropical savannas. The analysis of previously preserved individuals showed strong sexual dimorphism in body size and shape, with females being larger than males. Female body size positively correlated with clutch volume. Hypsiboas albopunctatus seems to have a generalist diet, consuming primarily Coleoptera, Aranae, and Orthoptera (assuming accidental vegetal ingestion). Prey size was positively correlated with anuran head size. Hypsiboas albopunctatus seems to be a generalist, as demonstrated by its continuous activity and reproduction, generalist diet, and habitat use, presenting some breeding adaptations to enhance offspring size, such as sexual size dimorphism related to clutch volume in females.
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