Insecticide bioassays of the leafrollers, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were used to investigate resistance and cross-resistance between azinphosmethyl and other insecticides. Comparisons of field-collected populations with susceptible laboratory colonies of both leafroller species were made in 1996–97, prior to registration and field introduction of several of insecticides, and were re-tested in 2000–2001 following several years of use in the field. Insecticides tested included azinphosmethyl, chlorpyrifos, methyl parathion, tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, spinosad, indoxacarb, acetamiprid, Bacillus thuringiensis, and azadirachtin. Azinphosmethyl-susceptible laboratory colonies were used for comparison to field populations. Resistance to azinphosmethyl was found in all populations of C. rosaceana (5.2–26.8 fold) and P. pyrusana (8.4–24.9 fold) collected from commercial orchards. Cross-resistance between azinphosmethyl and the insect growth regulators tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide was found in all but one population of the two leafroller species. No cross-resistance was found to chlorpyrifos. Some of the populations tested were cross-resistant to spinosad and indoxacarb, but the responses to these materials were more variable.
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