In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are highly specialized procedures used for artificial production of successive generations of domestic animals. However, in pigs, the efficacy of these procedures in generating viable embryos is still poor. We focus here on both IVF and ICSI in pigs in relation to the physiology of fertilization (morphological changes and nuclear remodeling). This knowledge should contribute to the development of advanced technologies for in vitro production of zygotes that have the potential for full-term development to the offspring stage after transfer to recipients.
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Vol. 23 • No. 3