Although the order Chiroptera has received extensive systematic attention during the past century, because of incongruence among studies and a paucity of synapomorphic characters, many problems associated with higher-level phylogeny and taxonomy of bats still exist. One notable example regards phylogenetic affinities of Old World Myzopodidae and Neotropical Furipteridae, Natalidae, and Thyropteridae. Traditionally, these 4 families are believed to have shared a most recent common ancestor, yet, until recently, no study has specifically tested this hypothesis. A recent phylogenetic analysis detected strong bootstrap support for monophyly of these 4 families and recommended recognition of the superfamily Nataloidea to document this relationship. We used variation in mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the monophyly of Nataloidea. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from 3 adjacent genes (12S rRNA, tRNAVal, and 16S rRNA) failed to support monophyly of Nataloidea. Furipteridae, Natalidae, and Thyropteridae were related most closely to Noctilionoidea, whereas Myzopodidae represented a basal microchiropteran lineage. Our phylogeny is concordant with current geographic distributions and limited fossil record for the 4 families.
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