A phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of 2 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) confirmed that Ochotona alpina (Pallas, 1773) and O. turuchanensis Naumov, 1934, are sister taxa to all other Palearctic species of the subgenus Pika. O. hyperborea (Pallas, 1811) contains sufficient genetic heterogeneity to define 2 or 3 races within this species. Examination of genetic data supports the recognition of O. scorodumovi Skalon, 1935, as a distinct species. The proper name of the taxon (either O. scorodumovi Skalon, 1935, or O. mantchurica Thomas, 1909) remains to be established. O. hoffmanni Formozov et al., 1996, is probably the closest relative of O. scorodumovi. These 2 taxa constitute a sister group to O. hyperborea. All the above-mentioned Palearctic taxa constitute the monophyletic alpina–hyperborea group. The pallasi group contains at least 3 taxa: O. (p.) pallasi (Gray, 1867), O. (p.) pricei Thomas, 1911, and O. (p.) argentata Howell, 1928. The taxonomic rank of these 3 taxa requires additional careful investigation. Nearctic pikas O. princeps (Richardson, 1828) and O. collaris (Nelson, 1893) constitute a monophyletic group separate from Palearctic taxa.
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