We compared 7 populations of woodmice, Hylomyscus stella (Thomas, 1911), from west-central, east-central, and east Africa using traditional morphometric data of the cranium. Our results are congruent with previous molecular and cytogenetic data, and demonstrate that specimens previously identified as H. stella represent 2 cryptic species: H. stella from east-central and east Africa, and Hylomyscus sp. nov. from west-central Africa. According to current knowledge, the new species of Hylomuscus is a forest-dwelling species inhabiting the region between the Sanaga River and the Oubangui and Congo rivers in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, and Republic of the Congo. It is sympatric, and even syntopic, with the morphologically closely related species H. alleni. These 2 cryptic species can be distinguished by traditional morphometric analysis of the cranium and by examination of molecular data.
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