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1 June 2014 Species-level analysis of diets of two mormoopid bats from Puerto Rico
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Abstract

Molecular approaches, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), allow biologists to analyze the diet of mammals in more detail than conventional techniques, by targeting DNA of prey found within feces. Diets of the Antillean ghost-faced bat (Mormoops blainvillei) and sooty mustached bat (Pteronotus quadridens) on Puerto Rico were determined via PCR, and resulting sequences of DNA were compared with those in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD). We identified 21 species consumed by M. blainvillei and 4 by P. quadridens, although an additional 12 sequences were identified to genus or family. Seven taxa in the diet of these bats were of agricultural or human-health concern. All sequences, including those that did not match a reference insect in BOLD, were collapsed into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) and used to demonstrate that dietary breadth (Levin's measure) of M. blainvillei was 18% less than that of P. quadridens and that dietary overlap (Schoener's index) between species was only 11.6% at the level of species. Use of MOTUs showed significantly greater differences in dietary breadth and less dietary overlap between these insular endemics than previous analyses based on standard fecal analysis to the level of order.

Las técnicas moleculares, tales como el PCR (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa), permiten analizar el régimen alimentario de los mamíferos con un nivel de detalle que sobrepasa las técnicas convencionales. Esto se logra identificando en la excreta el ADN de las presas del mamífero. Utilizamos las secuencias de ADN encontradas en la excreta de los murciélagos barbicacho (Mormoops blainvillei) y bigotudo menor (Pteronotus quadridens) en Puerto Rico para determinar el régimen alimentario de los mismos. Ambas especies son endémicas de las Antillas Mayores. Las secuencias de ADN fueron comparadas con aquellas en el “Barcode of Life Data Systems” (BOLD). Identificamos 21 especies de insectos consumidos por M. blainvillei y 4 por P. quadridens, y 12 secuencias adicionales fueron identificadas a nivel de género o familia. Siete taxones identificados en el régimen alimentario de estos murciélagos son de importancia agrícola o para la salud humana. Todas las secuencias, incluyendo las que no coincidieron con ninguna referencia en BOLD, fueron convertidas en unidades operacionales de taxonomía molecular (MOTUs) y utilizadas para demostrar que la amplitud alimentaria (métrica Levin) de M. blainvillei es 18% menor que la de P. quadridens. El solapamiento alimentario (indice Schoener) entras las 2 especies de murciélago fue de 11.6%. El uso de MOTUs reveló diferencias significativamente mayores en amplitud alimentaria y menores en el solapamiento de dieta entre estas especies, al compararlo con análisis previos basados en análisis fecales estándares a nivel de Orden.

Ashley K. Rolfe, Allen Kurta, and Daniel L. Clemans "Species-level analysis of diets of two mormoopid bats from Puerto Rico," Journal of Mammalogy 95(3), (1 June 2014). https://doi.org/10.1644/13-MAMM-A-190
Received: 4 August 2013; Accepted: 1 February 2014; Published: 1 June 2014
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