Risk of predation shapes the physiology, behavior, and demography of prey. Among the many studies that have examined effects of risk in ungulates, most have focused on large (> 40kg) and gregarious species. Much less is known about the effect of risk on smaller or territorial ungulates, which is a diverse group of species that can have pronounced effects on plant communities in tropical ecosystems. Using GPS telemetry, we examined spatial responses of Guenther's dik-dik (Madoqua guentheri) to scent marks from a common predator (African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus) or cattle. In response to predator scent marks, dik-diks increased fidelity within territories, avoided scent marks, and decreased use of overstory cover. Similar behaviors occurred in response to cattle scent marks, with the exception that use of overstory cover relative to controls did not change. Total amount (length) of movement did not change in response to either type of scent mark. Thus, an increase in perceived risk of predation changed the pattern and distribution of dik-dik movement but did not change total amount of movement. Our results suggest that territoriality may constrain the options available for prey to avoid predation risk.
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