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1 July 2000 Laboratory Selection for Resistance toBacillus sphaericusinCulex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae) from California, USA
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Abstract

A previously untreated field population ofCulex quinquefasciatusSay, collected near Bakersfield, CA, was subjected to intensive laboratory selection with the bacterial insecticideBacillus sphaericusNeide (strain 2362) at a level producing 95% mortality. Resistance rapidly appeared and resistance levels increased such that fourth instars of generation 12 were able to survive a concentration ofB. sphaericusthat was 7,000 times higher than the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the susceptible reference colony. Similar resistance levels were detected in first instars. Cross-resistance in the selected colony was detected towardB. sphaericusstrains 1593 and 2297, but little or no cross-resistance was observed towardB. sphaericusstrains IAB59 or ISPC5 (=WHO 2173). Cross-resistance also was not detected toward the bacterial insecticideBacillus thuringiensissubsp.israelensis,toward a recombinant strain expressing bothB. thuringiensissubsp.israelensisandB. sphaericus(strain 1593) toxins, toward individual or multiple toxins fromB. thuringiensissubsp.israelensis,or toward conventional synthetic insecticides. Genetic analysis revealed thatB. sphaericusresistance was inherited as a recessive trait and controlled by a single major locus. These data are discussed in relation to cases of field resistance toward this biopesticide in theCx. pipiens(L.) complex.

Margaret C. Wirth, George P. Georghiou, Javed Iqbal Malik, and Ghulam Hussain "Laboratory Selection for Resistance toBacillus sphaericusinCulex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae) from California, USA," Journal of Medical Entomology 37(4), 534-540, (1 July 2000). https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-37.4.534
Received: 12 August 1999; Accepted: 1 February 2000; Published: 1 July 2000
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