Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) were collected from the Corozal Army Veterinary Quarantine Center in Panama and characterized for resistance to five classes of acaricides. These ticks were highly resistant to permethrin, DDT, and coumaphos; moderately resistant to amitraz; and not resistant to fipronil when compared with susceptible strains. Resistance to both permethrin and DDT may result from a mutation of the sodium channel. However, synergist studies indicate that enzyme activity is involved. The LC50 estimate for permethrin was lowered further in the Panamanian strain then in susceptible strains with the addition of triphenylphosphate (TPP), but not with the addition of piperonyl butoxide (PBO). This suggests that esterases and not oxidases are responsible for at least some pyrethroid resistance. Elevated esterase activity and its inhibition by TPP were confirmed by native gel electrophoresis. The LC50 estimate obtained for coumaphos in the Panamanian strain was not lowered further than what was observed for susceptible strains by the addition of TPP or PBO. This indicates that enzyme activity might not be involved in coumaphos resistance. Resistance to amitraz was measured through a modification of the Food and Agriculture Organization Larval Packet Test. All tick strains were found to be susceptible to fipronil.
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