The efficacy of a photostable formulation of methoprene and two photostable juvenoids, fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen, and their residual activity in inhibiting the emergence of adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), was studied in topsoil. Nursery pots composed of clay, peat, and plastic, and wooden flats were used to hold soil samples. Treated soil samples were exposed to sunlight during the 63-d study period. Methoprene was as effective as fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen against cat fleas for up to 42 d in clay, peat, and plastic pots at a concentration of 64.56 mg (AI)/m2 (6 mg [AI]/ft2), but its activity declined significantly thereafter. In contrast, fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen showed strong residual activity for the entire 63 d. The activity of methoprene declined even more rapidly over time in wooden flats, while at the same concentrations the other two juvenoids showed significant residual activity for 63 d. Clay, peat, and plastic pots were therefore considered to be equally effective for evaluating the outdoor efficacy of juvenoids in comparison to the wooden flats. However, results obtained with wooden flats may be more realistic when testing residual activity of volatile chemicals such as methoprene. Fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen showed strong efficacy and residual activity at concentrations of 8.07, 16.14, and 32.28 mg (AI)/m2, whereas methoprene did not cause a significant reduction of adult emergence at levels below 64.56 mg (AI)/m2. LC50 values for methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen needed for preventing flea emergence when applied to topsoil were estimated to be 0.643, 0.031, and 0.028 ppm, respectively.
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Vol. 39 • No. 6