Anopheles stephensi (Liston) is a well-known vector of malarial parasite in tropical countries. The developing trend of resistance in mosquitoes toward synthetic mosquitocidal agents makes their management extremely difficult. Effectiveness of essential oils with aroma therapeutic values seems to be an emerging tool to combat this vector. Piperitenone oxide isolated from essential oil of a new genotype, Mentha spicata L. variety viridis, has been evaluated for larvicidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent, developmental toxicity, and repellent properties against various stages of A. stephensi. The results indicated the higher efficacy of piperitenone oxide than the crude essential oil of M. spicata variety viridis in all the bioassay experiments. The lethal response of piperitenone oxide and the oil toward fourth instar larvae showed LD50 values of 61.64 and 82.95 μg/ml, respectively. Female adults of A. stephensi exposed to the oil laid ≈42 times less number of eggs at the dose of 60.0 μg/ml as compared with control, whereas exposure of piperitenone oxide at the same dose completely inhibited the oviposition. Furthermore, piperitenone oxide also completely inhibited egg hatching at the dose of 75.0 μg/ml in ovicidal assay. Developmental toxicity studies showed the significant developmental inhibition potential of the compound and oil. Additionally, piperitenone oxide was found to be highly toxic and repellent toward adults of A. stephensi as compared with oil.
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Vol. 41 • No. 4