In laboratory tests, ethyl acetate extracts of Hyptis suaveolens Poit. from Guinea-Bissau and Rhododendon tomentosum (Stokes) H. Harmaja (formerly Ledum palustre L.) and Myrica gale L. significantly reduced probing activity of Aedes aegypti (L.). In the field in southern Sweden, extracts of leaves of R. tomentosum, M. gale, and Achillea millefolium L. significantly reduced biting by Aedes mosquitoes. Volatile compounds from M. gale, R. tomentosum, A. millefolium, and H. suaveolens were collected by solid phase microextraction (SPME). Alternatively, compounds in the plants were subjected to extraction by organic solvents of different polarities or by steam distillation and collection by SPME. Compounds collected were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Leaves of H. suaveolens contained mainly β-caryophyllene, bergamotene, and terpinolene. The volatile fraction of an ethyl acetate extract of H. suaveolens was collected by SPME and included β-caryophyllene, (−)-sabinene, β-pinene, limonene, α-pinene, and bergamotene. The main volatiles detected were α-pinene, α-phellandrene, myrcene, and limonene from M. gale leaves or inflorescences; p-cymene, sabinene, and terpinyl acetate from leaves of R. tomentosum; and (−)-germacrene D, β-pinene, sabinene, and α-pinene from A. millefolium leaves or inflorescences. The selected plant species contained numerous volatiles known to have insecticidal, acaricidal, “pesticidal,” and/or insect repellent properties.
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