In total, 320 phelebotomine sand flies from Alibozlu (Osmaniye), Kizyusuflu (Osmaniye), and Sanliurfa in southeastern Turkey were tested for the detection and identification of Leishmania in vector sand flies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with species-specific monoclonal antibodies. We used monoclonal antibodies that recognize both Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, and a monoclonal antibody specific only to L. tropica. Phosphate-buffered saline and monoclonal antibody M2 recognizing Leishmania amazonensis were used as controls. Infection rates of sand flies were 0.9% in Alibozlu, 0% Kizyusuflu, and 3.6% in Sanliurfa. Positive sand flies were identified as Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot and Phlebotomus major syriacus Adler & Theodor.
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