The effects of different pyrethroid insecticides, formulations, and doses on peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug) were evaluated in 128 houses with 148 identified infested peridomestic sites in northwestern Argentina between October 2003 and March 2005. Four treatments were randomly assigned within each community: two doses of 5% suspension concentrate β-cypermethrin in water applied with manual compression sprayers, the standard dose (S) at 50 mg and a double dose (2S) at 100 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2; and two emulsifiable concentrates diluted in diesel fuel and applied with power sprayers, 25% cypermethrin (100 mg [AI]/m2) (CF) and 10% permethrin (170 mg [AI]/m2) (DF). Infestation was assessed by timed manual collections with a dislodging agent at baseline, 5, 12, and 17 mo postspraying, and the sites found to be reinfested at 5 mo postspraying were selectively resprayed. Only 2S eliminated T. infestans from all peridomestic sites up to 12 mo postspraying, and it was significantly more effective than all other treatments. At 5 mo postspraying, more sites treated with CF or DF rather than S had bug colonies that probably represented residual foci, which they also failed in eliminating after a second spray. At 17 mo postspraying, the prevalence of reinfested peridomestic sites was 5% for 2S, 29% for S, 43% for CF, and 54% for DF. The application of suspension concentrate pyrethroids in dose twice as large as that currently in use in the attack phase produces a greater initial impact and may eliminate peridomestic populations of T. infestans.
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