In the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles, two point mutations at the voltage-gated sodium channel have been associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Simple allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect these single-nucleotide polymorphisms are prone to lack of specificity and therefore alternative techniques have been proposed. However, these may not be easily implemented in many laboratories from malaria endemic regions. Here, we describe a primer-introduced restriction analysis (PIRA)-PCR method to detect kdr mutations in An. gambiae. This method unambiguously identified all six genotypes for the kdr locus in a sample of 113 field-collected mosquitoes for which kdr genotypes had been confirmed by DNA sequencing. Co-occurrence of both kdr alleles was found in sites from Equatorial Guinea and Gabon and the L1014F mutation was detected in M-form individuals from Angola. The PIRA-PCR proved to be a reliable, robust, and simpler alternative for the detection of kdr mutations in this malaria vector.
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Vol. 45 • No. 2