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1 March 2008 Relationship Between kdr Mutation and Resistance to Pyrethroid and DDT Insecticides in Natural Populations of Anopheles gambiae
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Abstract

The spread of insecticide resistance genes in Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto threatens to compromise vector-based malaria control programs. Two mutations at the same locus in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene are known to confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids and DDT. Kdr-e involves a leucine-serine substitution, and it was until recently thought to be restricted to East Africa, whereas kdr-w, which involves a leucine-phenylalanine substitution, is associated with resistance in West Africa. In this study, we analyze the frequency and relationship between the kdr genotypes and resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids and DDT by using WHO test kits in both the Forest-M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae in Cameroon. Both kdr-w and kdr-e polymorphisms were found in sympatric An. gambiae, and in many cases in the same mosquito. Kdr-e and kdr-w were detected in both forms, but they were predominant in the S form. Both kdr-e and kdr-w were closely associated with resistance to DDT and weakly associated with resistance to type II pyrethroids. Kdr-w conferred greater resistance to permethrin than kdr-e. We also describe a modified diagnostic designed to detect both resistant alleles simultaneously.

Lisa Reimer, Etienne Fondjo, Salomon Patchoké, Brehima Diallo, Yoosook Lee, Arash Ng, Hamadou M. Ndjemai, Jean Atangana, Sekou F. Traore, Gregory Lanzaro, and Anthony J. Cornel "Relationship Between kdr Mutation and Resistance to Pyrethroid and DDT Insecticides in Natural Populations of Anopheles gambiae," Journal of Medical Entomology 45(2), 260-266, (1 March 2008). https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2008)45[260:RBKMAR]2.0.CO;2
Received: 3 August 2007; Accepted: 26 November 2007; Published: 1 March 2008
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