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1 July 2008 Toxicity of Oxalic Acid Against Adult Hyalomma lusitanicum Ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in Laboratory Conditions: LD50
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Abstract

The abundance of Hyalomma lusitanicum ticks in open areas of central Spain is the result of many natural and human factors. Control of tick populations by chemical and other means may be necessary until we can determine the key global factors in this important tick population. Despite many attempts to establish ecological control of ticks, there is little data about the activity of organic acids. This article describes tests on the in vitro toxicity of oxalic acid (OA) against wild H. lusitanicum adult ticks. Serial dilutions of OA dihydrate were prepared in distilled water with 1% of Tween 20. The treatment was applied in three replicates of 10–14 tick/dose from 0 to 1.037 mg OA/tick. Doses >0.311 mg of OA killed all ticks in 24 h. Toxicity of the OA increased over time; therefore, the LD50 decreased from 0.22 mg at 24 h to 0.127 mg at 72 h. The results obtained show the toxicity of OA against adult H. lusitanicum ticks under in vitro conditions. Comparing toxicity in ticks and honey bees, OA seems a relatively safe treatment for nontarget arthropods and a potential alternative for tick population control. However, further research is needed to establish its real effectiveness and applicability under field conditions.

La abundancia de Hyalomma lusitanicum en campo abierto en España se debe a la confluencia de factores ambientales y humanos. Es necesario utilizar métodos de control de la población de garrapatas hasta conseguir restablecer el equilibrio de la población. Aunque los ixódidos se han intentado controlar de forma ecológica, existen pocos datos sobre la utilización de los ácidos orgánicos. En este artículo se evalúa la eficacia in vitro del OA frente a adultos de H. lusitanicum de origen silvestre. Las dosis se aplicaron sobre grupos de 10–14 garrapatas, aplicándose cada dosis en tres réplicas. Las dosis aplicadas fueron de 0,062 a 1,037 mg OA/garrapata. Dosis iguales o superiores a 0,311 mg mataron a todos los individuos a las 24 h. Se observó que la toxicidad del OA aumentó en el tiempo pasando de 0,22 mg a las 24 h a 0,127 mg a las 72 h. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron la eficacia del OA frente a H. lusitanicum in vitro. Comparando la toxicidad en las garrapatas y en las abejas melíferas parece que el tratamiento con este ácido podría ser una alternativa para el control de las primeras y sería relativamente seguro para los artrópodos que no se desea controlar. Es necesario realizar nuevos ensayos para evaluar la autentica eficacia de este tratamiento en condiciones de campo.

A. Sonia Olmeda, Jose L. Pérez, Raquel Martín-Hernández, María Torrente, and Félix Valcárcel "Toxicity of Oxalic Acid Against Adult Hyalomma lusitanicum Ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in Laboratory Conditions: LD50," Journal of Medical Entomology 45(4), (1 July 2008). https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2008)45[715:TOOAAA]2.0.CO;2
Received: 2 March 2007; Accepted: 25 April 2008; Published: 1 July 2008
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