Bloodmeal identification and the detection of avian malaria parasite from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were carried out by polymerase chain reaction-based methods for field samples collected in coastal areas of Tokyo Bay, Japan, from April to October 2007. The following seven mosquito species were collected: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex pipiens pollens Coquillett, Culex pipiens form molestus Forskal, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex inatomii Kamimura & Wada, Culex bitaeniorhynchus Giles, and Lutzia vorax Edwards. Forty blood-fed mosquitoes were collected and 95% of bloodmeals of Cx. pipiens pallens were avian-derived, whereas only mammalian bloodmeals were identified for Ae. albopictus. Plasmodium DNA was amplified from 65% (15/23) of blood-fed Cx. pipiens pallens and unfed females of Cx. pipiens pallens and Cx. pipiens form molestus with a minimum infection rate of 29.9 and 13.5, respectively. One unfed female of Lt. vorax was also positive for Plasmodium parasites. Five genetically distinct lineages of Plasmodium were identified, with 0.21 to 5.86% sequence divergence. Rinshi-8, the most prevalent lineage at our study site, was identical to the published sequence of Plasmodium relictum-P5.
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