Chagas disease is a major health concern in Latin America, and Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) is responsible for the majority of cases of Chagas disease in the continent. After the discovery of deltamethrin highly resistant populations in the neighboring areas to Yacuiba (Bolivia) and Salvador Mazza (Argentina), we studied T. infestans populations north and southward, with the aim of describing the range of the resistant area. In addition, tests were conducted to describe the susceptibility to fipronil in deltamethrin-resistant populations. Tarija populations were highly resistant to deltamethrin, showing that the resistant area is greater than previously reported. Argentinean and Paraguayan populations were susceptible or presented moderate to low levels of deltamethrin resistance. Resistance to fipronil was found in Bolivian populations, although this insecticide was effective against Argentinean populations. This study shows that the Argentinean and Paraguayan populations are currently under successful control with deltamethrin. However, continuous resistance monitoring is necessary. We found that fipronil is a viable option for Argentina, whereas the resistance found in Bolivia implies that new formulations are needed to control T. infestans in Bolivia. Further research is required to find new alternatives of control in those areas that are currently suffering from high infestation rates.
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Vol. 47 • No. 6