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1 January 2011 Enhanced Repellency of Binary Mixtures of Zanthoxylum armatum Seed Oil, Vanillin, and Their Aerosols to Mosquitoes Under Laboratory and Field Conditions
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Abstract

The repellency of Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil (ZA-SO), alone or in combination with vanillin (VA), its six major constituents, and another four major previously known Zanthoxylum piperitum fruit oil constituents, as well as aerosol products containing 5 or 10% ZA-SO and 5% VA, was evaluated against female Aedes aegypti in laboratory and field studies. Results were then compared with those of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) as a standard. Hand in cage laboratory tests showed that 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/cm2 ZA-SO resulted in >92% protection through 30-min postexposure and was not significantly different than 0.05 mg/cm2 DEET. Skin treated with linalool and limonene (from Z. armatum) provided >80% repellency to female Ae. aegypti at 10-min exposure, whereas cuminaldehyde, citronellal, geranyl acetate, and cuminyl alcohol (from Zanthoxylum piperitum) provided >90% protection during this same time period. Only cuminaldehyde and citronellal provided complete protection comparable to DEET at 10-min postexposure. After that time, repellency of all plant constituents to mosquitoes was considerably decreased (<≈65%). An increase in repellency and duration of effectiveness was produced by a binary 1:4 mixture of ZA-SO and VA (0.05:0.2 mg/cm2) that was significantly more effective than 0.05 mg/cm2 DEET through 90 min. In field tests, an aerosol formulation containing 5 or 10% ZA-SO plus 5% VA gave 100% repellency at 60-min postexposure. Although these formulations were equal to the level of protection afforded by 10% DEET, repellency to the binary ZA-SO aerosol formulations at 90 min was significantly less effective than DEET. However, mixtures formulated from ZA-SO and VA merit further study as potential repellents for protection of humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

© 2011 Entomological Society of America
Hyung Wook Kwon, Soon-Il Kim, Kyu-Sik Chang, J. Marshall Clark, and Young-Joon Ahn "Enhanced Repellency of Binary Mixtures of Zanthoxylum armatum Seed Oil, Vanillin, and Their Aerosols to Mosquitoes Under Laboratory and Field Conditions," Journal of Medical Entomology 48(1), (1 January 2011). https://doi.org/10.1603/ME10042
Received: 18 February 2010; Accepted: 1 September 2010; Published: 1 January 2011
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