The effectiveness of two doses of suspension concentrate (SC) pyrethroid insecticides in suppressing peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestons (Klug) was evaluated in 28 rural communities located in Santiago del Estero province, northwestern Argentina, including 388 houses and 1,516 identified sites. Four treatments were randomly assigned to peridomiciles within each community: 5% SC β-cypermethrin at standard (S, 50 mg active ingredient [AI] /m2) and double dose (2S), and 2.5% SC deltamethrin at standard (D, 25 mg [AI]/m2) and double dose (2D). Simultaneously, we assessed the effects of both pyrethroids applied at standard doses against domestic infestations. Bug infestation at the site level was assessed by timed manual collections with a dislodging agent at baseline, 13 and 21 mo postspraying (MPS). In domiciles, D and S nearly suppressed all T. infestans infestations up to 21 MPS. In peridomestic sites infested before interventions, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that site-level reinfestation at 13 MPS was significantly lower for treatment 2D (1%) than for other treatments, whereas 2S (6%), D (5%), and S (14%) did not differ significantly between them. The risk of reinfestation after spraying was significantly greater in goat or pig corrals than in other peridomestic ecotopes (in which treatments did not differ significantly), and in sites infested before interventions than in uninfested sites. The application of SC deltamethrin at double dose in goat or pig corrals may suppress T. infestans foci and achieve more sustained effects in the dry Chaco.
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