Locust phase polyphenism is a spectacular example of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity. It is generally interpreted as an adaptation to heterogeneous environmental conditions brought on by high population density. However, several nonlocust species are known to express phase-like traits, which is difficult to explain from an adaptive perspective alone. Here I attempt to explain this phenomenon by 1) taking a reaction norm perspective in understanding the mechanisms underlying locust phase and 2) taking a phylogenetic perspective to study how individual reaction norms of locust phase might have evolved. I argue that locust phase polyphenism is a complex syndrome resulting from interactions among different density-dependent plastic reaction norms, each of which can follow a separate evolutionary trajectory, which in turn can be reflected in a phylogeny. Using a phylogeny of Cyrtacanthacridinae (Orthoptera: Acrididae), I explore the evolution of plasticity in density-dependent color change. I demonstrate that locusts and closely related nonlocusts, express similar phenotypic plasticity due to phylogenetic conservatism. Finally, I argue that it is crucial to study the evolution of locust phase polyphenism from both adaptive and phylogenetic perspectives.
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Vol. 14 • No. 2