Ditrachybothridium piliformis is a new species from the spiral intestine of a cat shark, Galeus sp., from the southern Pacific Ocean. This is only the second species assigned to Ditrachybothridium. It differs from the type species D. macrocephalum in lacking spines on the scolex, a character originally used to diagnose the genus. The diagnoses of the Ditrachybothridiidae and of Ditrachybothridium have been revised to reflect this difference. This new species is further differentiated from the type species in its possession of pectinate spinitriches on the tegument of the scolex. The holdfast structures of this species are weakly muscularized, with no membrane-bound layer of radial muscles, indicating that the holdfast structures are bothria rather than bothridia as described in the most recent literature. Several reports for other species have indicated the same situation in other diphyllideans. The diagnosis of the order has been revised to reflect this finding.
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