Red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) were infected experimentally with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in New Brunswick, Canada, and with Elaphostrongylus cervi in New Zealand. Excretory–secretory (E–S) antigens from adult P. tenuis were evaluated for their serodiagnostic potential in identifying P. tenuis and heterologous E. cervi infections in a Western blot. The antigen recognition profile of sera from animals infected with P. tenuis varied between individuals and with duration of infections, whereas that of pooled sera from animals infected with E. cervi showed less variation. A single molecule of 42–43 kDa was recognized consistently by sera from all animals infected with either P. tenuis or E. cervi. Sera from unexposed control deer and from those with other heterologous nematode infections did not consistently identify this antigen. Serorecognition of the 42–43-kDa antigen by deer infected with P. tenuis resulted in a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 85% (≥1 mo postinfection). Although antibody to this antigen waned with time, the persistence of recognition up to 34 mo postinfection with P. tenuis exemplifies its diagnostic value. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis using this molecule were each 100% for identifying deer infected with E. cervi (≥3 mo postinfection). Two other molecules from E–S of adult P. tenuis, 26–28 and 10–12 kDa, were also diagnostic, although their recognition was not persistent throughout infections. These 2 molecules may prove useful in combination with the 42–43-kDa antigen to help identify all infected animals during all phases of infections. This research represents the first conclusive identification of antigens with real potential for reliable antemortem immunodiagnosis of both P. tenuis infections and heterologous E. cervi infections.