Laboratory dogs were vaccinated subcutaneously with 3 different recombinant fusion proteins, each precipitated with alum or calcium phosphate. The vaccinated dogs were then challenged orally with 400 third-stage infective larvae (L3) of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. The 3 A. caninum antigens selected were Ac-TMP, an adult-specific secreted tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases; Ac-AP, an adult-specific secreted factor Xa serine protease inhibitor anticoagulant; and Ac-ARR-1, a cathepsin D–like aspartic protease. Each of the 3 groups comprised 6 male beagles (8 ± 1 wk of age). A fourth group comprised control dogs injected with alum. All of the dogs vaccinated with Ac-TMP or Ac-APR-1 exhibited a vigorous antigen-specific antibody response, whereas only a single dog vaccinated with Ac-AP developed an antibody response. Dogs with circulating antibody responses exhibited 4.5–18% reduction in the numbers of adult hookworms recovered from the small intestines at necropsy, relative to alum-injected dogs. In contrast, there was a concomitant increase in the number of adult hookworms recovered from the colon. The increase in colonic hookworms was as high as 500%, relative to alum-injected dogs. Female adult hookworms were more likely to migrate into the colon than were males. Anti-enzyme and anti-enzyme inhibitor antibodies correlated with an alteration in adult hookworm habitat selection in the canine gastrointestinal tract.
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