Neodiplostomula from the European grass snake Rhabdophis tigrina, in the Republic of Korea, were thought to represent 2 species: Pharyngostomum cordatum (large-sized neodiplostomula), an intestinal trematode of cats, and Neodiplostomum seoulense (small-sized neodiplostomula), an intestinal trematode of humans and rodents. The present study describes N. leei n. sp. (Digenea: Neodiplostomidae) on the basis of adult flukes recovered from the small intestines of chicks experimentally infected with small-sized neodiplostomula from the grass snake. The new species differs from N. seoulense in terms of the more extensive distribution of vitellaria, the more severe bilobation of 2 testes (each having a dumbbell shape), the absence of a genital cone, and the smaller size of the tribocytic organ and eggs. Neodiplostomula of the new species and N. seoulense are almost indistinguishable. The new species develops into an adult in chicks, whereas N. seoulense matures in mice and rats. Neodiplostomula of the new species migrate to the liver in mice and rats, without maturing. Results show that there are at least 3 species of neodiplostomid trematodes in the grass snake in the Republic of Korea, i.e., P. cordatum, N. seoulense, and N. leei n. sp.
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