Antibodies to Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona were determined in serum samples of 502 domestic cats from Brazil using direct agglutination tests with the respective antigens. Antibodies to S. neurona were not found in 1:50 dilution of any serum in the S. neurona agglutination test, suggesting that domestic cats from São Paulo city were not exposed to S. neurona sporocysts from opossums. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 60 (11.9%) of 502 cats with titers of 1:40 in 36 cats, 1:80 in 18 cats, 1:160 in 5 cats, and 1:800 in 1 cat using the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). Antibodies to N. caninum were confirmed by Western blotting in the sera of 10 cats with NAT titers of 1:80 to 1:800; this finding suggests that at least 10 cats had N. caninum–specific antibodies confirmed by 2 tests. This is the first documentation of natural exposure of cats to N. caninum.
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