We describe the microsporidian Amazonspora hassar n. gen., n. sp. from the gill xenomas of the teleost Hassar orestis (Doradidae) collected in the estuarine region of the Amazon River. The parasite appeared as a small whitish xenoma located in the gill filaments near the blood vessels. Each xenoma consisted of a single hypertrophic host cell (HHC) in the cytoplasm of which the microsporidian developed and proliferated. The xenoma wall was composed of up to approximately 22 juxtaposed crossed layers of collagen fibers. The plasmalemma of the HHC presented numerous anastomosed, microvilli-like structures projecting outward through the 1–3 first internal layers of the collagen fibrils. The parasite was in direct contact with host cell cytoplasm in all stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony). Sporogony appears to divide by plasmotomy, giving rise to 4 uninucleate sporoblasts, which develop into uninucleate spores. The ellipsoidal spores measured 2.69 ± 0.45 × 1.78 ± 0.18 μm, and the wall measured ∼75 nm. The anchoring disk of the polar filament was subterminal, being shifted laterally from the anterior pole. The polar filament was arranged into 7–8 coils in a single layer in the posterior half of the spore, surrounding the posterior vacuole. The polaroplast surrounded the uncoiled portion of the polar filament, and it was exclusively lamellar. The spores and different life-cycle stages were intermingled within the cytoplasm of the HHC, surrounding the central hypertrophic deeply branched nucleus. The ultrastructural morphology of this microsporidian parasite suggests the erection of a new genus and species.